A Summary is a short description That gives only the main points of something.
HOW TO WRITE A GOOD SUMMARY
Read the passage repeatedly till you understand it fully and well.
 Underline the important points or ideas.
 Leave out all unnecessary details or points.
 Do not use big words or long sentences and quote.
 Do not change the order of the points.
 Avoid examples, comparisons, quotations, and expressions like I think, in my opinion.
 Use your own words as far as possible keeping all the important points.
 Reduce the passage to not more than half and not less than one-third of the original.
You must understand the author’s purpose in writing the passage. You must understand and select important points in the passage.
SOME PASSAGES ARE WORKED OUT ]
Bhagsbati Debi was a noble and kind lady. She loved to live with poor villagers. Once her son, Vidyasagar, saw her wearing an old, torn shawl. He was very unhappy. He bought a new shawl for her. Bhagabati Debi took the shawl from her son but did not use it. She put it in her box. Many people in the village had nothing to wear in winter. So Bhagabati did not wear the new shawl.
Bhagahati lived with the poor villagers. Her son Vidyasagar saw her wearing a torn shawl. He bought her a new shawl. But she did not use the new shawl as many villagers had nothing to wear in winter.
 There was a quarrel between the wind and the sun. The wind said, “You are not half as strong as I” The sun said, I am stronger than you.” Suddenly they saw a man coining down the road. The wind said, “The one of us who can make the man take off his coat will be the winner.” The sun said, “I’ll let you have the first chance.” The wind first tried his power. He blew an icy blast. But the more he blew the more did the man hold tight the coat around him. The wind had to give up trying any more. Now it was the turn of the sun. He began to shine down upon the man with all his might. The man felt too hot to hold the coat on his body. He was forced to take off his coat.
Hints to do the summary…
Read the text twice over and answer the following questions in your mind—
(l) Who quarreled?
(2) How did they quarrel?
(3) Who came there?
(4) What did they agree to?
(5) What did the wind do?
(6) What was the result?
(7) What did the sun do ?—
The answer will give you the summary.
Here is the answer…
There was a quarrel between the wind and the sun. Each claimed that he was stronger than the other. Then a man came by. It was decided that whichever of the two could take away the man’s coat would be held stronger. The wind blew hard but the man held the coat tighter. The sun shone and the man felt very hot and took off his coat.
The Terai forest is the usual home for large animals like elephants, tigers, gaurs and wild buffaloes. There are also deer, rhinoceros, pythons, and bears. Here the smallest animals are mountain goats, mountain sheep, wolves, and flying squirrels. Birds are plenty in the Terai and Bhabar regions. Most of them are singing birds like Shama, Drango, and Thrush. Game birds like Fowl and Partridge can also be seen. In the mountain region, birds have beautifully colored feathers, but they cannot sing as sweety as the Terai birds. In the plains, they are worms like Leeches. These are quite harmful to the farmers. The forest on the mountains breeds ticks. These are very small blood-sucking insects. These are also no less harmful to the people living over there.
Large animals like elephants, tiger, and buffaloes live in the Terai forest. Deer, bears, and rhinos also live in this area. The smallest animals like goats, sheep, and wolves are also available M this forest. Singing birds Shatna, thrush etc. and game birds like fowls and partridge are also found here. The birds of the mountains are beautiful but they cannot sing sweetly like the Tarai birds. In the plain, there live leeches and ticks. They are harmful to the people living over there.  Little Rabi lived in a nursery. It was near the servants’ quarter. In .1′ recited the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The children kept quiet and listened to them. They almost knew these great epics by heart. children saw their mothers at bedtime or only when they were ill. They used to give the children very little food. The children could not say seldom saw their fathers. The servants usually looked after them. They anything to their parents. The servants, however, told them stories and sit at a window. Then he would draw a line around him with a chalk, roll those days boys of most of the rich families lived in this manner. The Very often Rabi’s servant would give him some food and make him his eyes and say, “Now look, young Master, stay inside this line and you’ll be safe. You know the story of Sita. Lakshmana drew a line, but she stepped over it. You know what happened then. The horrible demon got there.”
Little Rabi lived in a nursery, It was near the servant’s quarters. In those days boys of most of the rich families lived in this manner. The children saw their mothers at bedtime or only when they were in They seldom saw their fathers. The servants usually looked after them They used to give the children very little food. The children could not say anything to their parents. The servants, however, told them stories and recited the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The children kept quiet and listened to them. They almost knew those great epics by heart. Very often Rabi’s servant f, give him some food and make him sit at a window. Then he would draw a line around him with a chalk, roll his eyes and say, “Now look, young Master, stay inside this line and you’ll be safe. You know the story of Sita. L.akshmana drew a line, but she stepped over it You know what happened then. The horrible demon got there.”
Little Rabi lived in the nursery. In those days the servants looked after the children of the family. Rabi’s servant would often give him little food. Rabi could not complain to his parents. The servants would tell him stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and make him sit at the window. The servant would draw a line and told the boy not to cross the line.
A mother had three sons. She used to keep jam in a meat-safe. One of the sons, a naughty boy, used to steal it. The mother could not catch the thief. At last, she hit upon a plan. Once she called in all her sons and said. “My dear ones, you see my jam is daily stolen. You all say that none of you have stolen it. But I know who the thief is. There is a piece of chalk on the head of the child who has stolen the jam.” As soon as they heard, one of the sons, put up his hand and felt his head. The mother now spotted out the thief and took him to the task.
A mother had three sons. One of them used to steal jars from his meat-safe. She was unable to catch the thief. She hit upon a plan. She called all the sons and told them that the thief had got a piece of chalk on his head. The guilty boy at once felt his head by the hand. The thief was detected and punished.
“One hot day a wolf and a bull came at the same time to drink at a small well. Both made up their minds to drink first and none would give in. From words, they soon came to blows. Thus they fought for a long time. At last, they were so tired that they were glad to take rest on the ground. As they lay on the ground they saw crowds of crows in the sky. The birds had come to feast on the one which should fall first. At this, the two beasts said in one voice. “Why should we fight and be the food of these crows? Let us make friends and drink in peace.”
A wolf and a bull came to drink from the same well. Both wanted to drink first. They fell out and fought. They became tired and took some rest_ Then they saw a group of crows over their heads. The crows came to eat the one which would die first. This was a lesson to the beasts. They made friends and drank in peace.
The seasons in the tropics are quite different from the seasons in temperate and arctic countries. In the tropics, there are wet seasons and dry seasons, but the weather is hot and warm all the year round, and there are no such things as forest or ice or snow, except on the tops of high mountains. Also, there is little difference in the length of days, or in the general appearances of the vegetation there are always flowers and fruits,
and trees are always green, because, as old leaves die and fall, new leaves are already growing to take their place. In temperate and arctic countries the distinction between the seasons is marked chiefly by great changes in temperature, from the heat in summer to cold in winter, with the milder seasons of spring and autumn between.
The tropical countries have very different seasons from the seasons of the temperate and arctic countries. In the tropics it is usually hot throughout the year with a wet season in between—There is little difference in the length of days and in the appearance of vegetation in the tropics. In the Arctic countries, the difference in seasons is marked by changes in temperature.