Robotic surgery is a computer-assisted surgery as well as a robot-assisted surgery which is another advanced technology which makes efficient use of robotic systems to carry on the surgical procedures. This surgery is basically developed to overcome the limitations of pre-existing minimal surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. It is a minimally invasive surgery this means that instead of operating on patients through large instruments we use miniaturized instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch instruments where surgery was performed with the world’s most advanced surgical robot. In this, the instruments are mounted on the arms of the robot which allows the surgeon for maximum motions and accuracy as well. The robot in the fourth arm contains a 3D camera that guides the surgeon of the whole procedure. The surgeon controls the operation from a console in the operating room. The doctor can operate the four arms of the robot using his fingers on the master line control while looking through a stereoscopic high definition monitor that is placed inside the patient. The ultimate effect is to offer the surgeon unprecedented control in a minimally invasive environment. Making a use of this advanced technology the surgeons are able to perform a growing number of complex urological, gynecological, cardiological and many more surgical procedures. Since these procedures are performed using small instruments thus patients are benefited more as compared to any opening surgery. The biggest advantage of this surgery lies in the fact that for executing the procedure the surgeon does not need to be present at the place but can perform through any place in the world leading to the greater probability of remote surgery.
In the case of enhanced open surgery, numerous instruments in familiar configurations replaced the traditional steel tools which were used for performing much smoother feedback – controlled motions by a human hand. The main objective of this lies in the fact that it reduces the traumatic tissue traditionally that is associated with open surgery without requiring more than few minutes training of any surgeon. This approach improves open surgeries like cardio-thoracic that are not efficiently conducted by minimally invasive techniques.
Many advances that are treated using surgical robots are remote surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to robotic use, the surgery is done with miniaturized instruments and accuracy, decreased blood loss and with less healing time as well. The articulation that is simply beyond the normal manipulation and also the 3D magnification helps improved ergonomics. Due to these improved methods, there is also a reduced duration of hospital stay, blood loss transfusions and the use of medication related to pain. The existing open surgery techniques have many flaws like limited access to the surgical area, long recovery time, long hours of operation, surgical scars and marks.
The robot cost is around $1,390,000 and its disposal supply cost is around $1500 per procedure. In addition to this surgical training is required to operate the system. Many surgeons report that though this provides a better alternative to open surgery but the training that they should be given before operating should be really intensive and should operate on at least 18 patients to adopt the technology in a proper way. But comparative to all other minimally invasive surgeries the robot-assisted surgeries are the best alternatives because it provides a better control of the surgeons on the instruments and a better view of the surgical site. Moreover, surgeons do not need to stand and tire quickly during the procedure. The patients when coming with an expectation of less blood loss, less pain then this serves a good purpose.
The critics of the system said that the procedure is not easily acceptable to all the surgeons around the world and needs intense learning before adapting into the method. It has also been criticized for its expense which is estimated costing 1500 dollars to 2000 dollars per patient.